Telegram (messaging service) with Darkweb (Darknet) used by Terrorist Group Islamic State ISIS (ISIL / IS) Daesh Propaganda. Please USE Code Talkers (World’s Rarest Languages)
Telegram is a free cloud-based instant messaging service. Telegram clients exist for both mobile (Android, iOS, Windows Phone, Ubuntu Touch) and desktop systems (Windows, macOS, Linux). Users can send messages and exchange photos, videos, stickers, audio, and files of any type. Telegram also provides optional end-to-end-encrypted messaging.
Telegram is supported by Russian entrepreneur Pavel Durov. Its client-side code is open-source software, whereas its server-side code is closed-source and proprietary. The service also provides APIs to independent developers. In February 2016, Telegram stated that it had 100 million monthly active users, sending 15 billion messages per-day.
The security of Telegram has faced notable scrutiny; critics have argued that Telegram’s security model is undermined by its use of a custom-designed encryption protocol that has not been proven reliable and secure, and by not enabling secure conversations by default. Telegram has also faced criticism for its wide-scale use by the terrorist organizationIslamic State.
Cryptography experts have expressed both doubts and criticisms on Telegram’s MTProto encryption scheme, saying that deploying home-brewed and unproven cryptography may render the encryption vulnerable to bugs that potentially undermine its security, due to a lack of scrutiny. It has also been suggested that Telegram did not employ developers with sufficient expertise or credibility in this field.
Critics have also disputed claims by Telegram that it is “more secure than mass market messengers like WhatsApp and Line“, because WhatsApp applies end-to-end encryption to all of its traffic by default and uses a protocol that has been “reviewed and endorsed by leading security experts”, while Telegram does neither and insecurely stores all messages, media and contacts in their cloud. Since July 2016, Line has also applied end-to-end encryption to all of its messages by default.
The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) listed Telegram on its “Secure Messaging Scorecard” in February 2015. Telegram’s default chat function received a score of 4 out of 7 points on the scorecard. It received points for having communications encrypted in transit, having its code open to independent review, having the security design properly documented, and having completed a recent independent security audit. Telegram’s default chat function missed points because the communications were not encrypted with keys the provider didn’t have access to, users could not verify contacts’ identities, and past messages were not secure if the encryption keys were stolen. Telegram’s optional secret chat function, which provides end-to-end encryption, received a score of 7 out of 7 points on the scorecard. The EFF said that the results “should not be read as endorsements of individual tools or guarantees of their security”, and that they were merely indications that the projects were “on the right track”.
In December 2015, two researchers from Aarhus University published a report in which they demonstrated that MTProto does not achieve indistinguishability under chosen-ciphertext attack (IND-CCA) or authenticated encryption. The former means that it is possible to turn any ciphertext into a different ciphertext that decrypts to the same message. The researchers stressed that the attack was of a theoretical nature and they “did not see any way of turning the attack into a full plaintext-recovery attack”. Nevertheless, they said they saw “no reason why [Telegram] should use a less secure encryption scheme when more secure (and at least as efficient) solutions exist”.
In April 2016, accounts of several Russian opposition members were hijacked by intercepting the SMS messages used for login authorization. In response, Telegram recommended using the optional two-factor authentication feature. In May 2016, the Committee to Protect Journalists and Nate Cardozo, senior staff attorney at Electronic Frontier Foundation, recommended against using Telegram because of “its lack of end-to-end encryption [by default] and its use of non-standard MTProto encryption protocol, which has been publicly criticized by cryptography researchers, including Matthew Green“.
Telegram has organised two cryptography contests to challenge its own security. Third parties were asked to break the service’s cryptography and disclose the information contained within a secret chat between two computer-controlled users. A reward of respectively US$200,000 and US$300,000 was offered. Both of these contests expired with no winners. Security researcher Moxie Marlinspike and commenters on Hacker News criticised the first contest for being rigged or framed in Telegram’s favour and said that Telegram’s statements on the value of these contests as proof of the cryptography’s quality are misleading.
Telegram was open and working in Iran without any VPN or other circumvention methods in May 2015. In August 2015, the Iranian Ministry of ICT asserted that Telegram had agreed to restrict some of its bots and sticker packs in Iran at the request of the Iranian government. According to an article published on Global Voices, these features were being used by Iranians to “share porn and satirical comments about the Iranian government”. The article also noted that “some users are concerned that Telegram’s willingness to comply with Iranian government requests might mean future complicity with other Iranian government censorship, or even allow government access to Telegram’s data on Iranian users”. Telegram has stated that all Telegram chats are private territory and that they do not process any requests related to them. Only requests regarding public content (bots and sticker packs) will be processed. In May 2016, the Iranian government asked all messaging apps, including Telegram to move all Iranian users’ data to Iranian servers.
Use by terrorists
In September 2015, in response to a question about the use of Telegram by Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Pavel Durov stated: “I think that privacy, ultimately, and our right for privacy is more important than our fear of bad things happening, like terrorism.” ISIS has recommended Telegram to its supporters and members and in October 2015 they were able to double the number of followers of their official channel to 9,000. In November 2015, Telegram announced that it had blocked 78 public channels operated by ISIS, which were used for spreading propaganda and mass communication. Telegram stated that it would block public channels and bots that are related to terrorism, but it would not honor “politically-motivated censorship” based on “local restrictions on freedom of speech” and that it allowed “peaceful expression of alternative opinions.” Telegram’s usage for daiish’s propaganda has reignited the encryption debate and encrypted messaging applications have faced new scrutiny.
In August 2016, French anti-terrorism investigators asserted that the two daiish-directed Jihadists who fatally cut the throat of a priest in Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray in Normandy, France, and videoed the murder, had communicated via Telegram and “used the app to coordinate their plans for the attack”. daiish’s media wing subsequently posted a video on Telegram, showing the pair pledging allegiance. A CNN news report stated that Telegram “has become known as a preferred means of communication for the Sunni terror group daiish and was used by the daiish cell that plotted the Paris terror attacks in November“.
Code talkers are people in the 20th century who used obscure languages as a means of secret communication during wartime. The term is now usually associated with the United States service members during the world wars who used their knowledge of Native American languages as a basis to transmit coded messages. In particular, there were approximately 400–500 Native Americans in the United States Marine Corps whose primary job was the transmission of secret tactical messages. Code talkers transmitted these messages over military telephone or radio communications nets using formal or informally developed codes built upon their native languages. Their service improved the speed of encryption of communications at both ends in front line operations during World War II.
The name code talkers is strongly associated with bilingual Navajo speakers specially recruited during World War II by the Marines to serve in their standard communications units in the Pacific Theater. Code talking, however, was pioneered by the Cherokee and Choctaw peoples during World War I.
Other Native American code talkers were deployed by the United States Army during World War II, including Lakota, Meskwaki, and Comanche soldiers. Soldiers of Basque ancestry were also used for code talking by the U.S. Marines during World War II in areas where other Basque speakers were not expected to be operating.
Top 10 Rarest Languages Still Spoken in the World
Most of the time when thinking of language, people will automatically think about English, German, French, Spanish, and maybe others like Japanese, Arabic, Russian, and possibly Latin. Language is something that many people today take for granted. Without it, there’d be no communication, and no way to connect with others in the world. Imagine a life without a common language that at least a few others around you know. Sure people could write books and novels, but it’d be rare for someone else to understand. Language plays a huge role in everyone’s life, whether we think about it or not.
Despite the fact that language seems to be a necessity, the United Nations stated that on average, a language disappears every two weeks. Around the world, almost 6,000 or more languages are in danger of becoming extinct. These languages are rapidly disappearing due to circumstances such as those who speak the languages dying, certain languages integrating, and the fact that languages are more prominent than others, and in today’s world is more important than ever to know these popular languages, therefore leaving behind the less ones that are less known. In a sense, the death of a language means the death of a culture. Below are the 10 rarest languages from all over the world:
Note: There are hundreds of rare languages around the world. These are just some of the few that have the most recent reported data. To find more rare languages, visit http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/index.php?pg=00136.
10. Chamicuro (Chamekolo, Chamicolo, Chamicura)
Throughout the world, there are 8 people that speak Chamicuro, according to a 2008 study. The language is mostly spoken in Peru and is today considered to be critically endangered, as most of the people who do speak it are older. There are no children who speak Chamicuro because the region has adapted to speaking Spanish. However, those who spoke the language were able to develop a dictionary of their terms. If you ever want to know how to say a few animals in Chamicuro, use these: kawali (horse,) polyo (chicken,) pato (duck,) katujkana (monkey,) ma’nali (dog,) mishi (cat,) waka (cow.)
9. Dumi (Dumi Bo’o, Dumi Bro, Lsi Rai, Ro’do Bo’, Sotmali)
Dumi, a language of Nepal is usually spoken in regions near the Tap and Rava rivers. It is also spoken the mountains of Khotang District, located in eastern Nepal. It is a Kiranti language, meaning that it is part of the Tibeto-Burman language family. With only 8 people speaking it in 2007, the language is considered to be critically endangered. Information about the Dumi language has been collected overtime, and there is a dictionary available. There are also many books written about the language’s grammar and syntax.
In 2008, the Ongota language was said to still be declining. Only 6 native speakers know and use the language, all of them are elderly. This makes the language critically endangered. However, unlike most languages that are disappearing, there is actually a professor at Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia that studies Ongota. He’s concluded that the language follows a structure of subject, object, and verb. Ongota is said to be a Afro-Asiatic language that is spoken in Ethiopia on the west bank of the Weito River in a tiny village.http://www.sil.org/silesr/2002/SILESR2002-066.pdf
7. Liki (Moar)
Liki is a critically endangered language that is spoken in Islands off of the north coast of Sarmi, Jayapura Kabupaten, and Sarmi Kecamatan, all of which are islands near Indonesia. In 2007, a study showed that only 5 people speak the language. In the past, the language was spoken by all local church officials who lived in the region. The language doesn’t have just one origin, as it is said to be Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, and Sarmi.
6. Tanema (Tanima, Tetawo)
In the Solomon Islands, the Tanema language was once used in places such as Vanikolo Island, Temotu Province and in an Emua village. Today, the language is only spoken by 4 people, according to a 2008 conducted study. This makes the language critically endangered. Tanema is Austronesian as well as Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, and Oceanic. Many of those who once spoke Tanema have adapted and have started to speak either Pijin or Teanu, both of which are very popular languages within the region. Want to learn verbs in Tanema? Try: wekini (to turn), laro (to swim), la vamora (to work), and la munana (to lie down.)
Njerep is a Bantoid language that is spoken in Nigeria. The language was once spoken in Cameroon but isn’t any longer. It is now most commonly spoken near the Mambila. Today, the language has been replaced by different Mambila dialects such as Ba and Mvop. There are only 4 people who still speak Njerep according to a study conducted in 2007, making the language critically endangered. Those who do speak the language are elderly, so in a few centuries the language will more than likely be extinct.
Chemehuevi, a Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Southern language is mainly spoke in states in the Midwest as well as on the western coast. You may hear the language spoken in Ute, Colorado, Southern Paiute, Utah, northern Arizona, southern parts of Nevada, and in Colorado River, California. While the Chemehuevi tribe does still exist and is thriving, the amount of people who speak the language fluent is not. A 2007 study showed that only 3 people fully speak the language, all of them adults. If you ever want to talk about natural things in Chemehuevi, try words such as kaiv (mountain), hucip (ocean), mahav (tree), and tittvip (ground/soil).
3. Lemerig (Pak, Bek, Sasar, Leon, Lem)
Spoken in Vanuatu, an island located in the southern part of the Pacific Ocean about 1,000 miles east of northern Australia, Lemerig makes the list at #3. More specifically, this language is spoken in Vanua Lava Island. The language only has two people left who can speak it fluently, according to a 2008 study, making it another nearly extinct language on the list. Lemerig consists of at least four different dialects, all of which are probably extinct.
2. Kaixana (Caixana)
Kaixana is one of the many critically endangered languages that exist today. The language was once spoken in a village near the banks of the Japura River, located in Brazil. Over time, Portuguese settlers took over the area. At one point, nearly 200 people spoke the language. But, a 2006 study showed that only one person still speaks Kaixana, making it critically endangered and doomed to become extinct.
1. Taushiro (Pinche/Pinchi)
Taushiro, a language of native Peru, is spoken in the region of the Tigre River, Aucayacu River, which is a tributary of the Ahuaruna River. It is known as a language isolate, which means it has no demonstrable relationship with any other language. Those who spoke the language usually only counted up to ten, using their fingers. For instance, to say “one” in Taushiro, you’d say washikanto. To say a number above 10, you’d say “ashintu” and point to a toe on your foot. In 2008, a study conducted on the Taushiro language concluded that only one person speaks the language fluently. The language has since been listed as nearly extinct.