Surenos 13

Surenos 13

Sureños, Sur 13, or Sureños X3 are groups of loosely affiliated gangs[10] that pay tribute to the Mexican Mafia while in U.S. state and federal correctional facilities. Many Sureño gangs have rivalries with one another and the only time this rivalry is set aside is when they enter the prison system.[4][6][11] Thus, fighting is common among different Sureño gangs even though they share the same common identity. Sureños have emerged as a national gang in the United States.[5]

Location

The Sureños’ main stronghold is in Southern California. They have heavy presence in California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. They have a small presence in the Midwest, specifically in Chicago. They have spread as far east as North Carolina.[12] Sureños have been documented in the U.S. military, found in both U.S. and overseas bases.[13] They also can be found in some parts of Mexico. Sureños also maintain relationships with various Drug Trafficking Organizations (DTO) based in Mexico.[4][5][6] They have been confirmed in 35 different states in the U.S.[3] They are with the Gulf Cartel.

The statewide north-south dividing line between Norteños and Sureños has roughly been accepted as the communities of Delano and Bakersfield, California.[14] Sureños have been found in some parts of Central California. Sureños strongholds in Upstate California is usually in Santa Rosa and Modesto due to a high Mexican-American populations in the cities. Sureños in Los Angeles refer to their members in Central California as “Central Sureños” and Sureños refer to their members in Northern California as “Upstate Surenos”.

History

The term “Sureño” means Southerner in Spanish. Even though Sureños were established in 1968, the term was not used until the 1970s as a result of the continued conflict between the Mexican Mafia and Nuestra Familia in California’s prison system.[4] As a result of these prison wars, all Hispanic California street gangs align themselves with the Sureño or Norteño movement with very few exceptions such as the Fresno Bulldogs and the Perris Maravilla gang of Perris California.[2] When a Sureño is asked what being a Sureño means, members answer, “A Sureño is a foot soldier for the Mexican Mafia.”[15]

On 2009, members of the Sureños were charged in the deaths of rival Norteño gang members Alvaro Garcia-Pena and Intiaz Ahmed. One member of the Sureños pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 25 years in prison. Other members from the Sureños gang received other sentences for their involvement in the shooting.[16]

In 2010, 51 Sureños were arrested in a California Narcotics Sting. The investigation identified eight Sureño gangs involved in various criminal activities, including the distribution of narcotics. The investigation also resulted in the seizure of more than 19 pounds of methamphetamine, a methamphetamine conversion laboratory, 1.5 kilograms of cocaine, small amounts of crack cocaine, 25 pounds of marijuana, 35 firearms, and $800,000 in currency and property. The charges against the gang members were; conspiracy to distribute methamphetamine, cocaine and marijuana, street terrorism and firearms violations.[17]

Culture

While “sur” is the Spanish word for south, among Sureños SUR also stands for Southern United Raza.[18] Sureños use the number 13 which represents the thirteenth letter of the alphabet, the letter M, in order to pay allegiance to the Mexican Mafia.[3][4][19] Common Sureño gang markings and tattoos include, but are not limited to: Sur, XIII, X3, 13, Sur13, uno tres, trece and 3-dots.[19] Although there are many tattoos used by Sureños, there is only one tattoo that proves or validates membership.

The word Sureño or Sureña must be earned.[4] Most Sureños are of Mexican descent, but some Sureño gangs allow members from various other ethnic backgrounds to join their ranks making Sureños multiethnic.[4] They also favor blue or grey sport clothing, such as Los Angeles Dodgers, Los Angeles Rams and sometimes Los Angeles Lakers. Upstate Sureños however wear Dallas Cowboys, Los Angeles Clippers and Oakland Raiders[citation needed]

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