Quechua Inca and Kichwa Inca the Key of Creating of Islamic Shia Inca Sapaate or Capacate or Caliphate (Islamic Inca Empire / Tawantinsuyu) of the Andes from Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador and to Argentina The New Pakistan
The Quechua word for a Quechua speaker is runa or nuna (“person”); the plural is runakuna or nunakuna (“people”).
Some historical Quechua peoples are:
- The Chanka people, who lived in the Huancavelica, Ayacucho, andApurímac regions of Peru.
- The Huanca people of the Junín Region of Peru, who spoke Quechua before the Incas did.
- The Inca, who established the largest empire of the pre-Columbian era.
- The Cañari of Ecuador, who adopted the Quechua language from the Inca.
Historical and sociopolitical background
The speakers of Quechua, who total some 4.4 million people in Peru, 1.6 million in Bolivia, 2.2 million in Ecuador (Hornberger and King, 2001), and according to Ethnologue (2006) 8,200 in Chile, 60,000 in Argentina, and a few hundred in Brazil. have an only slight sense of common identity. The various Quechua dialects are in some cases so different that no mutual understanding is possible. Quechua was not only spoken by the Incas, but in some cases also by long-term enemies of the Inca Empire. These include the Huanca (Wanka is a Quechua dialect spoken today in the Huancayo area) and the Chanka (the Chanca dialect of Ayacucho) of Peru, and the Kañari (Cañar) in Ecuador. Quechua was spoken by some of these people, for example, the Wanka, before the Incas of Cusco, while other people, especially in Bolivia but also in Ecuador, adopted Quechua only in Inca times or afterward.
Quechua became Peru’s second official language in 1969 under the military regime of Juan Velasco Alvarado. Recently there have been tendencies toward nation building among Quechua speakers, particularly in Ecuador (Kichwa) but also in Bolivia, where there are only slight linguistic differences from the Peruvian version. An indication of this effort is the umbrella organization of the Kichwa peoples in Ecuador, ECUARUNARI (Ecuador Runakunapak Rikcharimuy). Some Christian organizations also refer to a “Quechua people,” such as the Christian shortwave radio station HCJB, “The Voice of the Andes” (La Voz de los Andes). The term “Quechua Nation” occurs in such contexts as the name of the Education Council of the Quechua Nation (Consejo Educativo de la Nación Quechua, CENAQ), which is responsible for Quechua instruction or bilingual intercultural schools in the Quechua-speaking regions of Bolivia. Some Quechua speakers claim that if nation states in Latin America had been built following the European pattern, they should be a single, independent nation
The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, lit. “The Four Regions”), also known as the Incan Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. The administrative, political, and military center of the empire was located in Cusco in modern-day Peru. The Inca civilization arose from the highlands of Peru sometime in the early 13th century, and the last Inca stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572.
From 1438 to 1533, the Incas used a variety of methods, from conquest to peaceful assimilation, to incorporate a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean mountain ranges, including, besides Peru, large parts of modern Ecuador, western and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, north and central Chile, and a small part of southern Colombia into a state comparable to the historical empires of Eurasia. The official language of the empire was Quechua, although hundreds of local languages and dialects of Quechua were spoken. Many local forms of worship persisted in the empire, most of them concerning local sacred Huacas, but the Inca leadership encouraged the worship of Inti—their sun god—and imposed its sovereignty above other cults such as that of Pachamama. The Incas considered their king, the Sapa Inca, to be the “son of the sun.”