Jihad is now in Southern Mexico, Latin America and Europe

Jihad is now in Southern Mexico, Latin America and Europe

cropped-chico
ISIS Islamic State (ISIL/IS) Daesh and Al Qaeda in the Indigenous Peoples of Latin America, North America and Europe

Jihad (English pronunciation: /dʒɪˈhɑːd/; Arabic: جهاد‎‎ jihād [dʒɪˈhaːd]) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.[1][2][3] It can have many shades of meaning in an Islamic context, such as struggle against one’s evil inclinations, or efforts toward the moral betterment of society.[1][2][4] In classical Islamic law, the term refers to armed struggle against unbelievers,[2][3] while modernist Islamic scholars generally equate military jihad with defensive warfare.[5][6] In Sufi and pious circles, spiritual and moral jihad has been traditionally emphasized under the name of greater jihad.[7][3] The term has gained additional attention in recent decades through its use by terrorist groups.

The word jihad appears frequently in the Quran with and without military connotations,[8] often in the idiomatic expression “striving in the path of God (al-jihad fi sabil Allah)”.[9][10] Islamic jurists and other ulema of the classical era understood the obligation of jihad predominantly in a military sense.[11] They developed an elaborate set of rules pertaining to jihad, including prohibitions on harming those who are not engaged in combat.[12][13] In the modern era, the notion of jihad has lost its jurisprudential relevance and instead gave rise to an ideological and political discourse.[5] While modernist Islamic scholars have emphasized defensive and non-military aspects of jihad, some Islamists have advanced aggressive interpretations that go beyond the classical theory.[5]

Jihad is classified into inner (“greater”) jihad, which involves a struggle against one’s own base impulses, and external (“lesser”) jihad, which is further subdivided into jihad of the pen/tongue (debate or persuasion) and jihad of the sword.[14][7] Most Western writers consider external jihad to have primacy over inner jihad in the Islamic tradition, while much of contemporary Muslim opinion favors the opposite view.[14] Gallup analysis of a large survey reveals considerable nuance in the conceptions of jihad held by Muslims around the world.[15]

Jihad is sometimes referred to as the sixth pillar of Islam, though this designation is not commonly recognized.[16] In Twelver Shi’a Islam jihad is one of the ten Practices of the Religion.[17] A person engaged in jihad is called a mujahid (plural mujahideen). The term jihad is often rendered in English as “Holy War”,[18][19][20] although this translation is controversial

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