Islam: The Sunni Muslims vs RAFIDI NUSAYRI Majosi Shia / Shiite Muslims in Indigenous Latin America

Islam: The Sunni Muslims vs RAFIDI NUSAYRI Majosi Shia / Shiite Muslims in Indigenous Latin America


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A. The Sunni Muslims have control:

20 Indigenous Sunni Muslim Groups in Latin America

1) The Maya of Southern Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Belize and Central America Northern Triangle

2) Native Americans of United States

3) Eskimos of Canada, Alaska and Greenland

4) Chorotega of Costa Rica

5) Bribri of Costa Rica

6) Ngabe Bugle Guaymi Panama

7) Embera of Panama and Colombia

8) Colombian Tribes

10)The Arawak of Guyana, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago Caribbean South America

11) Tainos of Caribbean and Eastern Cuba

12) Amazonian Tribes of Brazil

13) The Guarani of Tri Border Region of Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, Uruguay and Eastern Bolivia

14) Shuar Jivaro of Ecuador

15) Mapuche of Araucania Chile

16) Tehuelche, Selknam and Yaghan of Argentina and Tierra del Fuego in Patagonia

17) Other Indigenous Peoples in Mexico

18) Kuna of Panama

19) The Zapotec of Southern Mexico

20) The Garifuna of Guatemala

FARC or Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia

The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia—People’s Army (Spanish: Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia—Ejército del Pueblo, FARC–EP and FARC) is a guerrilla movement[10] involved in the continuing Colombian armed conflict since 1964. It has been known to employ a variety of military tactics[11] in addition to more unconventional methods, including terrorism.[12][13][14][15] The FARC-EP, which formed during the Cold War period as a Marxist–Leninist peasant force, promotes a political line of agrarianism and anti-imperialism. The operations of the FARC–EP were funded by kidnap and ransom; illegal mining;[16] extortion or taxation of various forms of economic activity; and the taxation, production, and distribution of illegal drugs.[17][18] The United Nations has estimated that 12% of all killings of civilians in Colombian conflict have been committed by FARC and ELN guerrillas, with 80% committed by right-wing paramilitaries, and the remaining 8% committed by security forces.[19]


The strength of the FARC–EP forces is high; in 2007, the FARC said they were an armed force of 18,000 men and women; in 2010, the Colombian military calculated that FARC forces consisted of about 13,800 members, 50 percent of whom were armed guerrilla combatants; and, in 2011, the President of Colombia, Juan Manuel Santos, said that FARC–EP forces comprised fewer than 10,000 members. In 2013 it was reported that 26,648 FARC and ELN members had decided to demobilize since 2002.[20] According to a report from Human Rights Watch, approximately 20–30% of the recruits are minors, most of whom are forced to join the FARC.[21] The greatest concentrations of FARC forces are in the southeastern, northern and southwestern regions of Colombia’s 500,000 square kilometers (190,000 sq mi) of jungle, in the plains at the base of the Andean mountain chain[citation needed] and in northwestern Colombia.[22] However, the FARC and the ELN (National Liberation Army of Colombia) lost control of much of the territory, especially in urban areas, forcing them to relocate to remote areas in the jungle and the mountains .[23]


In 1964, the FARC–EP were established as the military wing of the Colombian Communist Party (Partido Comunista Colombiano, PCC), after the Colombian military attacked rural communist enclaves in the aftermath of The Violence (La Violencia, ca. 1948–58). The FARC are a violent non-state actor (VNSA) whose formal recognition as legitimate belligerent forces is disputed by some organizations. As such, the FARC has been classified as a terrorist organization by the governments of Colombia, the United States, Canada, Chile, New Zealand, and the European Union; whereas the governments of Venezuela, Brazil, Argentina, Ecuador, and Nicaragua do not.[citation needed] In 2008, Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez recognized the FARC–EP as a proper army. President Chávez also asked the Colombian government and their allies to recognize the FARC as a belligerent force, arguing that such political recognition would oblige the FARC to forgo kidnapping and terrorism as methods of civil war and to abide by the Geneva Convention. Juan Manuel Santos, the current President of Colombia, has followed a middle path by recognizing in 2011 that there is an “armed conflict” in Colombia although his predecessor, Álvaro Uribe, strongly disagreed.[24] In 2012, FARC announced they would no longer participate in kidnappings for ransom and released the last ten soldiers and police officers they kept as prisoners, but it has kept silent about the status of hundreds of civilians still reported as hostages, and continued kidnapping soldiers and civilians.[25][26] In February 2008, millions of Colombians demonstrated against the FARC.[27][28][29]

In 2012, the FARC made 239 attacks on the energy infrastructure. However, the FARC have shown signs of fatigue. As of 2014, the FARC are not seeking to engage in outright combat with the army, instead concentrating on small-scale ambushes against isolated army units. Meanwhile, since 2008, the FARC have opted to attack police patrols with home-made mortars, sniper rifles, and explosives, as they are not considered strong enough to engage police units directly. This follows the trend of the 1990s during the strengthening of Colombian government forces.[30]

In June 2016, the FARC signed a ceasefire accord with the President of Colombia, Juan Manuel Santos in Havana. This accord has been seen as a historic step to ending the war that has gone on for fifty years.[31]

On August 25, 2016, the Colombian president, Juan Manuel Santos, announced that four years of negotiation has secured a peace deal with FARC and that a national referendum would take place on 2 October.[32] The referendum failed with 50.24% voting against.[33] The Colombian government and the FARC on November 24 signed a revised peace deal,[34] which the Colombian Congress approved on November 30.[35]


National Liberation Army or ELN


The National Liberation Army (Spanish: Ejército de Liberación Nacional, ELN) is an armed group involved in the continuing Colombian armed conflict,[5] which has existed in Colombia since 1964. The ELN advocate a composite communist ideology of Marxism and liberation theology. They conduct military operations throughout the national territory of Colombia; in 2013, it was estimated that the ELN forces consisted of between 1,380 and 3,000 guerrillas.[2][3][4]


The ELN is the lesser known of two communist guerrilla armies who operate in Colombia; the other guerrilla army is the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC–EP) who are Marxist–Leninist in their approach to the national liberation of Colombia.[6] According to former ELN national directorate member Felipe Torres, one fifth of ELN supporters have taken up arms.[7] The ELN has been classified as a terrorist organization by the governments of Colombia, Peru,[8] United States,[9] Canada[10] and the European Union.[


Sandinista National Liberation Front or FSLN


The Sandinista National Liberation Front (Spanish: Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional, FSLN) is now a democratic socialist[5][6] political party in Nicaragua.

Its members are called Sandinistas [sandiˈnistas] in both English and Spanish. The party is named after Augusto César Sandino, who led the Nicaraguan resistance against the United States occupation of Nicaragua in the 1930s.[7]

The FSLN overthrew Anastasio Somoza Debayle in 1979, ending the Somoza dynasty, and established a revolutionary government in its place.[8][9] Following their seizure of power, the Sandinistas ruled Nicaragua from 1979 to 1990, first as part of a Junta of National Reconstruction. Following the resignation of centrist members from this Junta, the FSLN took exclusive power in March 1981. They instituted a policy of mass literacy, devoted significant resources to health care, and promoted gender equality.[10] A militia, known as the Contras was formed in 1981 to overthrow the Sandinista government and was funded and trained by the US Central Intelligence Agency.[11] In 1984 elections were held[12] but were boycotted by some opposition parties. The FSLN won the majority of the votes,[13] and those who opposed the Sandinistas won approximately a third of the seats. The civil war between the Contras and the government continued until 1989. After revising the constitution in 1987, and after years of fighting the Contras, the FSLN lost what many consider the first truly democratic election in 1990 to Violeta Barrios de Chamorro but retained a plurality of seats in the legislature.

The FSLN remains one of Nicaragua’s two leading parties. The FSLN often polls in opposition to the Constitutionalist Liberal Party, or PLC. In the 2006 Nicaraguan general election, former FSLN President Daniel Ortega was re-elected President of Nicaragua with 38.7% of the vote compared to 29% for his leading rival, bringing in the country’s second Sandinista government after 16 years of the opposition winning elections. Ortega and the FSLN were re-elected again in the presidential election of November 2011.


Zapatista Army of National Liberationor EZLN


The Zapatista Army of National Liberation (Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, EZLN), often referred to as the Zapatistas, is a revolutionary leftist political and militant group based in Chiapas, the southernmost state of Mexico.

Since 1994 the group has been in a declared war “against the Mexican state”, and against military, paramilitary and corporate incursions into Chiapas.[1] This war has been primarily defensive. In recent years, it has focused on a strategy of civil resistance. The Zapatistas’ main body is made up of mostly rural indigenous people, but includes some supporters in urban areas and internationally. Their main spokesperson is Subcomandante Insurgente Galeano, previously known as Subcomandante Marcos (a.k.a. Compañero Galeano and Delegate Zero in relation to “the Other Campaign“). Unlike other Zapatista spokespeople, Marcos is not an indigenous Maya.[2]

The group takes its name from Emiliano Zapata, the agrarian reformer and commander of the Liberation Army of the South during the Mexican Revolution, and sees itself as his ideological heir. Nearly all EZLN villages contain murals with images of Zapata, Ernesto “Che” Guevara, and Subcomandante Marcos.[3]

Although the ideology of the EZLN reflects libertarian socialism, paralleling both anarchist and libertarian Marxist thought in many respects, the EZLN has rejected[4] and defied[5] political classification, retaining its distinctiveness due in part to the importance of indigenous Mayan beliefs in the Zapatistas. The EZLN aligns itself with the wider alter-globalization, anti-neoliberal social movement, seeking indigenous control over their local resources, especially land. Since their 1994 uprising was countered by the Mexican army, the EZLN has abstained from military offensives and adopted a new strategy that attempts to garner Mexican and international support.



Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front of FMLN


The Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (in Spanish: Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional, FMLN) is one of the two major political parties in El Salvador.

The FMLN was formed as an umbrella group on October 10, 1980, from five leftist guerrilla organizations:

The FMLN was one of the main participants in the Salvadoran Civil War. After peace accords were signed in 1992, all armed FMLN units were demobilized and their organization became a legal left-wing political party in El Salvador.

On March 15, 2009, the FMLN won the presidential elections with former journalist Mauricio Funes as its candidate. Two months earlier in municipal and legislative elections, the FMLN won the majority of the mayoralties in the country and a plurality of the National Assembly seats.


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B. The RAFIDI NUSAYRI Majosi Shia Muslims control:

9 Indigenous Shia / Shiite Muslim Groups in Latin America

1) Miskito of Nicaragua

2) Tainos of Western Cuba

3) Wayuu of Guajira Peninsula, Zulia and Lake Maracaibo Venezuela and Colombia

4) Quechua Inca of Andes in Peru

5) Aymara Inca of Andes in Bolivia

6) The Kichwa Inca of Ecuado

7) The Tupi of Brazil

8) The Pipil of El Salvador

9) The Lenca of Honduras


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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<td class="mbox-text"><span class="mbox-text-span">This article <b>needs additional citations for <a title="Wikipedia:Verifiability" href="">verification</a></b&gt;. <span class="hide-when-compact">Please help <a class="external text" href="">improve this article</a> by <a title="Help:Introduction to referencing with Wiki Markup/1" href="">adding citations to reliable sources</a>. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.</span> <small><i>(October 2007)</i></small> <small class="hide-when-compact"><i>(<a title="Help:Maintenance template removal" href="">Learn how and when to remove this template message</a>)</i></small></span></td>
<table class="infobox">
<caption>Organized crime in Italy</caption>
<th scope="row">Founded</th>
<td>1800s<sup id="cite_ref-fbi_1-0" class="reference"><a href="">%5B1%5D</a></sup></td&gt;
<th scope="row">Membership</th>
<td>25,000 members 250,000 affiliates<sup id="cite_ref-fbi_1-1" class="reference"><a href="">%5B1%5D</a></sup></td&gt;


Incidence of organized crime’s extortion by province in Italy

<p>Since first becoming well known in the 18th century, <b>organized crime in Italy</b> and its criminal organizations have infiltrated the social and economic life of many regions, particularly in <a title="Southern Italy" href="">Southern Italy</a>.</p>
<p>Five major mafia-like organizations are known to exist in Italy: <a class="mw-redirect" title="Cosa Nostra" href="">Cosa Nostra</a> (or the <a title="Sicilian Mafia" href="">Sicilian Mafia</a>) of <a title="Sicily" href="">Sicily</a&gt;; <a title="’Ndrangheta" href="">‘Ndrangheta</a&gt; of <a title="Calabria" href="">Calabria</a&gt; (who are considered to be among the biggest <a title="Cocaine" href="">cocaine</a&gt; smugglers in Europe); and <a title="Camorra" href="">Camorra</a&gt; of <a title="Naples" href="">Naples</a&gt;, are the oldest and most powerful of the five, having started to develop between 1500 and 1800. In the 20th century, two new criminal organizations, <a title="Stidda" href="">Stidda</a&gt; of Sicily and <a title="Sacra Corona Unita" href="">Sacra Corona Unita</a> of <a title="Apulia" href="">Apulia</a&gt;, were created. Two other Italian organized crime groups, the <a title="Banda della Magliana" href="">Banda della Magliana</a> of <a title="Rome" href="">Rome</a&gt; and <a title="Mala del Brenta" href="">Mala del Brenta</a> of <a title="Veneto" href="">Veneto</a&gt;, held considerable influence during their heights of power but are now largely defunct or inactive. The latest creation of Italian organized crime (IOC), <a class="mw-redirect" title="Mafia Capitale" href="">Mafia Capitale</a>, has recently been disbanded by the police.<sup id="cite_ref-Rai_-_Radiotelevisione_Italiana_2-0" class="reference"><a href="">%5B2%5D</a></sup></p&gt;
<p>The most notorious Italian organized crime group is the Mafia or <a title="Sicilian Mafia" href="">Sicilian Mafia</a> (referred to as <i><a class="mw-redirect" title="Cosa Nostra" href="">Cosa Nostra</a></i> by members). As the original “Mafia”, the Sicilian Mafia is the basis for the current colloquial usage of the term “<a title="Mafia" href="">mafia</a>” to refer to organized crime groups. The Mafia or Sicilian Mafia notably expanded into some foreign countries, especially the <a title="United States" href="">United States</a>, where Sicilian mafiosi eventually joined together with <a title="Naples" href="">Neapolitan</a&gt; criminal groups in the U.S. and other <a class="mw-redirect" title="Italian-American" href="">Italian-American</a&gt; and <a title="Italian diaspora" href="">Italian immigrant</a> criminal groups to form the modern <a class="mw-redirect" title="Italian-American Mafia" href="">Italian-American Mafia</a> (or simply the “American” Mafia.) Though less well-known, the Neapolitan Camorra, Calabrian ‘Ndrangheta, and offshoots of both these groups have also operated or set down roots in foreign countries, including the United States, <a title="Canada" href="">Canada</a&gt;, <a title="Australia" href="">Australia</a&gt;, <a title="Germany" href="">Germany</a&gt;, <a title="Latin America" href="">Latin America</a>, and <a title="Great Britain" href="">Great Britain</a>.</p>
<p><br /></p>
<h2><span id="Sicilian_Mafia_.28Cosa_Nostra.29" class="mw-headline">Sicilian Mafia (Cosa Nostra)</span></h2>

Main article: Sicilian Mafia

<p>Based primarily in <a title="Sicily" href="">Sicily</a&gt;, the <a title="Sicilian Mafia" href="">Sicilian Mafia</a> formed in the mid-19th century by clans which sprang out of groups of bandits; these groups gained local power and influence.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact">[<i><a title="Wikipedia:Citation needed" href=""><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (October 2007)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup> In <a title="Sicily" href="">Sicily</a&gt;, the word <i>mafia</i> tends to mean “manly” and a Mafioso considers himself a “Man of Honor.” However, the organization is known as “<a class="mw-redirect" title="Cosa Nostra" href="">Cosa Nostra</a>“—Our Thing—or Our Affair. The Sicilian Mafia originally engaged in such lower-level activities as extortion, cattle theft and, upon Sicily becoming part of a democratic Italy, election slugging in addition to other kinds of relatively low-level theft and fraud.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact">[<i><a title="Wikipedia:Citation needed" href=""><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (October 2007)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup></p>
<p>In the 1950s, <a title="Sicily" href="">Sicily</a&gt; experienced a massive building boom. Taking advantage of the opportunity, the Sicilian Mafia gained control of the building contracts and made millions of dollars.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact">[<i><a title="Wikipedia:Citation needed" href=""><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (October 2007)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup> It participated in the growing business of large-scale heroin trafficking, both in Italy and Europe and in US-connected trafficking; a famous example of this are the <a title="French Connection" href="">French Connection</a> smuggling with Corsican criminals and the Italian-American Mafia.</p>
<p>Today, the Sicilian Mafia has evolved into an international <a title="Organized crime" href="">organized crime</a> group. The Sicilian Mafia specializes in heroin trafficking, political corruption and military arms trafficking and is the most powerful and most active <a class="mw-redirect" title="Italian people" href="">Italian</a&gt; <a class="mw-redirect" title="Organized Crime" href="">Organized Crime</a> Group in the <a title="United States" href="">United States</a> with estimates of more than 2,500 Sicilian Mafia affiliates located there.<sup id="cite_ref-fbi_1-2" class="reference"><a href="">%5B1%5D</a></sup&gt; The Sicilian Mafia is also known to engage in arson, frauds, counterfeiting, and other racketeering crimes. It is estimated to have 3,500–4,000 core members with 100 clans, with around 50 in the city of Palermo alone.<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference"><a href="">%5B3%5D</a></sup></p&gt;
<p>The Sicilian Mafia has had influence in ‘legitimate’ power, particularly under the corrupt Christian Democratic governments from the 1950s to the early 1990s. It has had influence with lawyers, financiers, and professionals; also it has had power and resources by bribing or pressuring politicians, judges and administrators. It has less of these now than previously on the heels of the <a class="mw-redirect" title="Maxi-Trials" href="">Maxi-Trials</a&gt;, the campaign by magistrates <a title="Giovanni Falcone" href="">Giovanni Falcone</a> and <a title="Paolo Borsellino" href="">Paolo Borsellino</a> and other actions against corrupt politicians and judges; however it retains some influence.</p>
<p>The Sicilian Mafia became infamous for aggressive assaults on <a title="Italy" href="">Italian</a&gt; law enforcement officials during the reign of Toto Riina. In <a title="Sicily" href="">Sicily</a&gt; the term “Excellent Cadaver” is used to distinguish the assassination of prominent government officials from the common criminals and ordinary citizens killed by the Mafia. Some of their high ranking victims include police commissioners, mayors, judges, police colonels and generals, and Parliament members.</p>
<p>On May 23, 1992, the Sicilian Mafia struck <a title="Italy" href="">Italian</a&gt; law enforcement. At approximately 6:00 p.m., <a class="mw-redirect" title="Italian people" href="">Italian</a&gt; Magistrate <a title="Giovanni Falcone" href="">Giovanni Falcone</a>, his wife, and three police body guards were killed by a massive bomb. Falcone, Director of Prosecutions (roughly, District Attorney) and for the court of <a title="Palermo" href="">Palermo</a&gt; and head of the special anti-Mafia investigative squad, had become the organization’s most formidable enemy. His team was moving to prepare cases against most of the Mafia leadership. The bomb made a crater 30 feet in diameter in the road Falcone’s caravan was traveling.</p>
<p>This became known as the Capaci Massacre. Less than two months later, on July 19, 1992, the Mafia struck Falcone’s replacement, Judge <a title="Paolo Borsellino" href="">Paolo Borsellino</a>, also in <a title="Palermo" href="">Palermo</a&gt;, <a title="Sicily" href="">Sicily</a&gt;. Borsellino and five bodyguards were killed outside the apartment of Borsellino’s mother when a car packed with explosives was detonated by remote control as the judge approached the front door of his mother’s apartment.</p>
<p>In 1993 the authorities arrested <a title="Salvatore Riina" href="">Salvatore “Totó” Riina</a>, believed at the time to be the <a title="Capo di tutti capi" href="">Capo di tutti capi</a> and responsible directly or indirectly for scores if not hundreds of killings, after years of investigation which some believe was delayed by Mafia influence within the police and <a title="Carabinieri" href="">Carabinieri</a&gt;. After Riina’s arrest control of the organization fell to <a title="Bernardo Provenzano" href="">Bernardo Provenzano</a> who had come to reject Riina’s strategy of war against the authorities in favor of a strategy of bribery, corruption and influence-peddling. As a consequence the rate of Mafia killings fell sharply but Mafia influence not only in the international drug and white slavery (prostitution) trade but locally in construction and public contracts in Sicily continued. Provenzano was himself captured in 2006 after being wanted for 43 years.</p>
<p>In July, 2013, the Italian police conducted sweeping raids targeting top mafia crime bosses. In Ostia, a coastal community near the capital, police arrested 51 suspects for alleged crimes connected with Italy’s <a title="Sicilian Mafia" href="">Sicilian Mafia</a>. Allegations included extortion, murder, international drug trafficking and illegal control of the slot machine market.<sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference"><a href="">%5B4%5D</a></sup></p&gt;
<h3><span id="Stidda_or_La_Stidda" class="mw-headline"><a title="Stidda" href="">Stidda</a&gt; or La Stidda</span></h3>

<p>La Stidda (Sicilian, <i>star</i>) is the name given to the Sicilian organization started by criminals Giuseppe Croce Benvento and Salvatore Calafato, both of Palmi di Montechiaro, Agrigento province. The Stidda’s power bases are centered in the cities of Gela and Favara, Caltanissetta and Agrigento provinces. The organization’s groups and activities have flourished in the cities of Agrigento, Catania, Siracusa and Enna in the provinces of the same name, Niscemi and Riesi of Caltanissetta province and Vittoria of Ragusa province, located mainly on the Southern and Eastern coasts of Sicily.</p>
<p>The Stidda has extended its power and influence into the mainland Italy provinces of Milano, Genova and Torino. The members of the organization are called <i>stiddari</i> in Caltanissetta province and <i>stiddaroli</i> in Agrigento province. Stidda members can be identified and sometimes introduced to each other by a tattoo of five greenish marks arranged in a circle, forming a star called “i punti della malavita” or “the points of the criminal life.”</p>
<p>The Cosa Nostra wars of the late 1970s and early 1980s that brought the Corleonesi Clan and its vicious and ruthless leaders Luciano Leggio, Toto Riina and Bernardo Provenzano sometimes referred to as “Cosa Nuova” into power caused disorganization and disenchantment inside the traditional Cosa Nostra power base and values system, leaving the growing Stidda organization to counter Cosa Nostra’s power, influence and expansion in Southern and Eastern Sicily. The Stidda membership was reinforced by Cosa Nostra <i>men of honor</i> such as those loyal to slain Capo Giuseppe DiCristina of Riesi who had defected from Cosa Nostra’s ranks due to the bloodthirsty reign of the Corleonesi clan.</p>
<p>The organization also looked to enlarge its membership by absorbing local thugs and criminals (picciotti) who were at the margins of organized crime to gain more power and credibility in the Italian underworld. From 1978 to 1990, former Corleonesi clan leader and pretender to the Cosa Nostra’s “Capo di Tutti Capi” title, Toto Riina, waged a war within Cosa Nostra and against the Stidda spreading death and terror among mafiosi and the public in his quest for a crime dictatorship, leaving over 500 in Cosa Nostra and over 1000 in La Stidda dead, including Stidda Capos Calogero Lauria and Vincenzo Spina.</p>
<p>With the 1993 capture and imprisonment of Totò Riina, along with the currently jailed Bernardo Provenzano’s, “pax mafia,” following a new, less violent and low-key approach to criminal activities the Stidda has gained power, influence and credibility among the longer established criminal organizations within Italy and around the world, making itself an underworld player in the United States, Canada and Germany. The Stidda is sometimes called the “Fifth Mafia” in the Italian media and press.</p>
<h2><span id="Camorra_or_Campanian_Mafia" class="mw-headline"><a title="Camorra" href="">Camorra</a&gt; or Campanian Mafia</span></h2>
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<p>The word “Camorra” means gang. The Camorra first appeared in the mid-1800s in Naples, Campania, Italy, as a prison gang. Once released, members formed gangs in the cities and continued to grow in power. The Camorra has more than 115 gangs with about 500 members each, for a total of about 57,500.<sup id="cite_ref-econ_5-0" class="reference"><a href="">%5B5%5D</a></sup&gt; The Camorra made its fortune in reconstruction after a powerful earthquake ravaged the Campania region in 1980.<sup id="cite_ref-fbi_1-3" class="reference"><a href="">%5B1%5D</a></sup></p&gt;
<p>The Camorra also specializes in <a class="mw-redirect" title="Cigarette smuggling" href="">cigarette smuggling</a> and receives payoffs from other criminal groups for any cigarette traffic through <a title="Italy" href="">Italy</a&gt;. In the 1970s, the Sicilian Mafia convinced the Camorra to convert the cigarette smuggling routes into drug smuggling routes with the Sicilian [Mafia’s assistance but not all Camorra leaders agreed. This brought about the Camorra Wars between two factions and almost 400 men were murdered. Those opposed to drug trafficking lost the war.</p>
<p>The Camorra controls the drug trade in Europe, and is organized by management principles. It runs the largest open-air market in the world in <a title="Secondigliano" href="">Secondigliano</a&gt; in Naples. The gangs themselves are loosely controlled franchises. The former leader, <a title="Paolo Di Lauro" href="">Paolo Di Lauro</a>, who designed the system has been imprisoned since 2005. The organization produced about €200 million (about $250 million) annually. They inspired the current Italian television series <a title="Gomorrah (TV series)" href="">Gomorrah</a&gt;.<sup id="cite_ref-econ_5-1" class="reference"><a href="">%5B5%5D</a></sup></p&gt;
<p>It is believed that nearly 200 Camorra affiliates reside in the United States. Many came to the US during the Camorra Wars ever since the 19th century, as proved by an old organization best known as <a title="Black Hand (extortion)" href="">Black Hand</a>. The Camorra conducts money laundering, extortion, alien smuggling, robbery, blackmail, kidnapping, political corruption, and counterfeiting.</p>
<h2><span id=".27Ndrangheta_or_Calabrian_Mafia" class="mw-headline"><a title="’Ndrangheta" href="">‘Ndrangheta</a&gt; or Calabrian Mafia</span></h2>

Main article: ‘Ndrangheta

<p>Derived from the Greek word <i>andragathía</i> meaning courage or loyalty, the ‘Ndrangheta formed in the 1850s. The ‘Ndrangheta consists of 160 cells and approximately 6,000 members, worldwide some estimate there to be as many as 10,000 core members<sup id="cite_ref-johnhooper_6-0" class="reference"><a href="">%5B6%5D</a></sup&gt; and specializes in kidnapping and political corruption. The ‘Ndrangheta cells are loosely connected family groups based on blood relationships and marriages. ‘Ndrangheta presence in the United States is estimated between 100 and 200 members and associates. The majority of that presence is in <a class="mw-redirect" title="New York (state)" href="">New York</a> and <a title="Florida" href="">Florida</a&gt;. The ‘Ndrangheta is also known to engage in cocaine (controlling up to 80% of that flowing through Europe)<sup id="cite_ref-johnhooper_6-1" class="reference"><a href="">%5B6%5D</a></sup&gt; and heroin trafficking, murder, bombings, counterfeiting, illegal gambling, frauds, thefts, labor racketeering, loansharking, illegal immigration, and kidnapping.</p>
<h2><span id="Basilischi_.28Basilicatan_Mafia.29" class="mw-headline"><a class="new" title="Basilischi (page does not exist)" href="">Basilischi</a&gt; (Basilicatan Mafia)</span></h2>

Main article: Basilischi

<p>The Basilischi are a mafia organization founded in 1994 in <a title="Potenza" href="">Potenza</a&gt;. It’s sometimes called Italy’s fifth mafia.<sup id="cite_ref-7" class="reference"><a href="">%5B7%5D</a></sup&gt; This organization has assumed a role for the control of illegal activities in the region. They are believed to be an independently run ‘ndrina from the Rosarno Alliance involving 5 clans of in the provinces of Reggio Calabria and Gioia Tauro plain. Not a lot is known of them.</p>
<p>There is another belief that this group was created by local crime bosses and criminals with the help of the Pesce and Serraino ‘Ndrangheta clans from <a title="Rosarno" href="">Rosarno</a&gt; in the northern and western areas of the region of Calabria and so would be smuggling drugs and arms through Italy into the rest of Italy for these Clans.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact">[<i><a title="Wikipedia:Citation needed" href=""><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (May 2010)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup></p>
<h2><span id="Sacra_Corona_Unita_.28Apulian_Mafia.29" class="mw-headline"><a title="Sacra Corona Unita" href="">Sacra Corona Unita</a> (Apulian Mafia)</span></h2>

Main article: Sacra Corona Unita

<p>Sacra Corona Unita (SCU), or United Sacred Crown, is a Mafia-like criminal organization from the region of <a title="Apulia" href="">Apulia</a&gt; (in Italian <i>Puglia</i>) in Southern Italy, and is especially active in the areas of Brindisi and Lecce and not, as people tend to believe, in the region as a whole. The SCU was originally founded in the late 1970s as the Nuova Grande Camorra Pugliese, based in <a title="Foggia" href="">Foggia</a&gt;, by the Camorra member Raffaele Cutolo, who wanted to expand his operations into Apulia. It has also been suggested that elements of this group originated from the ‘Ndrangheta, but it is not know if they were breakaways from it or the result of indirect co-operation with clans of the ‘Ndrangheta.</p>
<p>A few years after the creation of the SCU, following the downfall of Cutolo, the organization began to operate independently from the Camorra under the leadership of <a class="new" title="Giuseppe Rogoli (page does not exist)" href="">Giuseppe Rogoli</a>. Under his leadership the SCU mixed its Apulian interests and opportunities with ‘Ndrangheta and Camorra traditions. Originally preying on the region’s substantial wine and olive oil industries, the group moved into fraud, gunrunning, and drug trafficking, and made alliances with international criminal organizations such as the Russian and Albanian mafias, the Colombian drug cartels, and some Asian organizations. The Sacra Corona Unita consists of about 50 Clans with approximately 2,000 Core members<sup id="cite_ref-fbi_1-4" class="reference"><a href="">%5B1%5D</a></sup&gt; and specializes in smuggling cigarettes, drugs, arms, and people.</p>
<p>Very few SCU members have been identified in the United States, however there are some links to individuals in Illinois, Florida, and possibly New York. The Sacra Corona Unita is also reported to be involved in money laundering, extortion, and political corruption and collects payoffs from other criminal groups for landing rights on the southeast coast of Italy. This territory is a natural gateway for smuggling to and from post-Communist countries like <a title="Croatia" href="">Croatia</a&gt;, <a title="Montenegro" href="">Montenegro</a&gt;, and <a title="Albania" href="">Albania</a&gt;.</p>
<p>With the decreasing importance of the Adriatic corridor as a smuggling route (thanks to the normalization of the Balkans area) and a series of successful police and judicial operations against it in recent years, the Sacra Corona Unita has been considered, if not actually defeated, to be reduced to a fraction of its former power, which peaked around the mid-1990s.</p>
<p><b>Local Rivals</b><br />
The internal difficulties of the SCU aided the birth of antagonistic criminal groups such as:</p>
<li>Remo Lecce Libera: formed by some leading criminal figures from Lecce, who claim to be independent from any criminal group other than the ‘Ndrangheta. The term Remo indicates Remo Morello, a criminal from the Salento area, killed by criminals from the Campania region because he opposed any external interference;</li>
<li>Nuova Famiglia Salentina: formed in 1986 by De Matteis Pantaleo, from Lecce and stemming from the Famiglia Salentina Libera born in the early 1980s as an autonomous criminal movement in the Salento area with no links with extra-regional Mafia expressions</li>
<li>Rosa dei Venti: formed in 1990 by De Tommasi in the Lecce prison, following an internal division in the SCU.<sup id="cite_ref-8" class="reference"><a href="">%5B8%5D</a></sup></li&gt;
<h2><span id="Mala_del_Brenta" class="mw-headline"><a title="Mala del Brenta" href="">Mala del Brenta</a></span></h2>
<p>The <b><a title="Mala del Brenta" href="">Mala del Brenta</a></b>, also known as the <i>Mala del Piovese</i> or <i>Malavita del Brenta</i> was in operation throughout the <a title="Veneto" href="">Veneto</a&gt; region, across Northern <a title="Italy" href="">Italy</a&gt; and into <a title="Croatia" href="">Croatia</a>/<a title="Yugoslavia" href="">Yugoslavia</a&gt;, <a title="Malta" href="">Malta</a&gt;, <a title="Hungary" href="">Hungary</a&gt; and possibly <a title="Austria" href="">Austria</a&gt; in the 1970s and 1980s.</p>
<p>There is a debate if this organization shall be considered a mafia-like organization, even if, according to <i>Article 416-bis cp</i>, introduced into Italy in 1982, it falls into the category of mafia-type organization displaying some of the characteristics described therein.<sup id="cite_ref-9" class="reference"><a href="">%5B9%5D</a></sup&gt; This is in spite of its origins in the Northern Italian region of the Veneto, and its North Italian membership base. Having originally spawned from the Southern Italian organized crime syndicates, who had operated and infiltrated the Veneto region during the 1970s, their vision of unifying Veneto banditry into a mafia-style syndicate was first realised under the leadership of <b><a title="Felice Maniero" href="">Felice “Angel Face” Maniero</a></b> throughout the 1980s and 1990s.</p>
<p>These original Sicilian mafiosi, controlled much of the mafia activity in the Veneto, throughout the 1960s and 1970s, and included most notably: Salvatore “Totuccio” Contorno, Gaetano Fidanzati, Antonino Duca, Gaetano and Salvatore Badalamenti, and Giuseppe Madonia. Veneti <i>malavitosi</i>, or underworld figures and bandits, learned from these Sicilians the necessary means for organizing themselves and taking the reins of control from the successive two decades.</p>
<p>Sometimes referred to as the fifth and smallest of the Mafia organizations across Italy during its existence, it operated under the sanction of the Corleonesi clan from Sicily and had strong links with other mafia families, such as <a class="mw-redirect" title="Cosa Nostra" href="">Cosa Nostra</a>, <a title="’Ndrangheta" href="">‘Ndrangheta</a&gt;, <a title="Camorra" href="">Camorra</a&gt; and <a title="Sacra Corona Unita" href="">Sacra Corona Unita</a>.</p>
<h2><span id="Banda_della_Magliana" class="mw-headline"><a title="Banda della Magliana" href="">Banda della Magliana</a></span></h2>
<p>The Banda della Magliana (English translation: Magliana Gang) was an Italian criminal organization based in <a title="Rome" href="">Rome</a&gt; and active mostly throughout the late 1970s until the early 1990s. The gang’s name refers to the neighborhood in Rome, the <a title="Magliana" href="">Magliana</a&gt;, from which most of its members came. The Banda della Magliana was involved in criminal activities during the Italian “<a title="Years of Lead (Italy)" href="">years of lead</a>” (or <i>anni di piombo</i>). The organization was tied to other Italian criminal organizations such as the Cosa Nostra, Camorra and the ‘Ndrangheta, but it was also notably connected to <a class="mw-redirect" title="Neofascist" href="">neofascist</a&gt; <a title="Paramilitary" href="">paramilitary</a&gt; and <a class="mw-redirect" title="Terrorist" href="">terrorist</a&gt; organizations, including the <a title="Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari" href="">Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari</a> (NAR), the neofascist group responsible for the <a class="mw-redirect" title="1980 Bologna massacre" href="">1980 Bologna massacre</a>. In addition to their involvement in traditional organized crime rackets, the Banda della Magliana is also believed to have worked for the Italian secret services (<a title="SISMI" href="">SISMI</a&gt;) and political figures such as <a title="Licio Gelli" href="">Licio Gelli</a>, grand-master of the illegal and underground <a class="mw-redirect" title="Freemason" href="">freemason</a&gt; lodge known as <a title="Propaganda Due" href="">Propaganda Due</a> (P2), all of which were purportedly connected to neofascist and far-right militant paramilitary groups.</p>
<h2><span id="Mafia_Capitale" class="mw-headline"><a class="mw-redirect" title="Mafia Capitale" href="">Mafia Capitale</a></span></h2>
<p>The <b>Mafia Capitale</b> was an <a title="Italy" href="">Italian</a&gt; Mafia-type, <a title="Organized crime" href="">crime syndicate</a>, or <a title="Secret society" href="">secret society</a>, that originated in the region of <a title="Lazio" href="">Lazio</a&gt; and its capital <a title="Rome" href="">Rome</a&gt;.<sup id="cite_ref-Rai_-_Radiotelevisione_Italiana_2-1" class="reference"><a href="">%5B2%5D</a></sup&gt; Founded in early 2000s by <b><a title="Massimo Carminati" href="">Massimo Carminati</a></b> on the ashes of <a title="Banda della Magliana" href="">Banda della Magliana</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-10" class="reference"><a href="">%5B10%5D</a></sup></p&gt;
<h2><span id="Italian_crime_in_U.S._and_other_foreign_countries" class="mw-headline">Italian crime in U.S. and other foreign countries</span></h2>
<p>Those currently active in the United States are the <a title="Sicilian Mafia" href="">Sicilian Mafia</a>, <a title="Camorra" href="">Camorra</a&gt; or Neapolitan Mafia, <a title="’Ndrangheta" href="">‘Ndrangheta</a&gt; or Calabrian Mafia, and <a class="mw-redirect" title="Sacra corona unita" href="">Sacra Corona Unita</a> or “United Sacred Crown”. The FBI refers to them as “Italian Organized Crime” (IOC). These Italian crime groups frequently collaborate with the <a class="mw-redirect" title="Italian-American Mafia" href="">Italian-American Mafia</a>, which is itself an offshoot of the Sicilian Mafia and, to a lesser extent, the <a title="Camorra" href="">Camorra</a&gt;.</p>
<p>The Sicilian Mafia first gained footing in the United States following <a title="Italian diaspora" href="">waves of immigration from Southern Italy</a> into the United States. In the past, the Camorra also operated on a larger scale in the United States, forming the <a class="mw-redirect" title="New York Camorra" href="">New York Camorra</a>, which warred with the Sicilian Mafia in the United States and eventually became absorbed into the United States Sicilian Mafia to form what is now known as the American or Italian-American Mafia. Though many of the first Italian criminal groups in the U.S. combined to create the Italian-American Mafia, more recent members of the Sicilian Mafia, Camorra, and ‘Ndrangheta continue to semi-independently operate in the U.S. or collaborate with the Italian-American Mafia.</p>
<p>The FBI estimates the size of the four IOC groups to be approximately 25,000 members and 250,000 affiliates worldwide. There are more than 3,000 members and affiliates in the United States scattered mostly throughout the major cities in the Northeast, the Midwest, <a title="California" href="">California</a&gt;, and the South. However, their largest presence centers around <a title="Boston" href="">Boston</a&gt;, New York, northern <a title="New Jersey" href="">New Jersey</a>, and <a title="Philadelphia" href="">Philadelphia</a&gt;. Their criminal activities are international with members and affiliates in Canada, South America, Australia, and parts of Europe. These organizations are also known to collaborate with other international organized crime groups from all over the world.</p>
<p>The Italian gangs (especially the Sicilian Mafia) have also connections with the <a title="Corsican mafia" href="">Corsican gangs</a>. This collaboration were mostly important during the <a title="French Connection" href="">French Connection</a> era. During the 1990s the links between the <a title="Corsican mafia" href="">Corsican Mafia</a> and the Sicilian Mafia permitted an establishment of some Sicilian gangsters in the <a title="Lavezzi Islands" href="">Lavezzi Islands</a>.</p>
<p>The major threat to American society posed by IOC groups centers around drug trafficking and money laundering. IOC groups have been involved in heroin trafficking for decades. Two major investigations which targeted IOC drug trafficking in the 1980s are known as the “French Connection” and “Pizza Connection.” These and other investigations have documented their cooperation in drug trafficking with other major drug trafficking organizations. IOC groups are also involved in illegal gambling, political corruption, extortion, kidnapping, frauds, counterfeiting, infiltration of legitimate businesses, murders, bombings, and weapons trafficking. Industry experts in Italy estimate that their worldwide criminal activity is worth more than $100 billion annually.</p>
<p>Outside of the United States, Italy, and <a title="Southern France" href="">Southern France</a>, IOC groups have also established strongholds in <a title="Canada" href="">Canada</a&gt; (i.e. <a title="Rizzuto crime family" href="">Rizzuto crime family</a>, <a title="Musitano crime family" href="">Musitano crime family</a>, <a title="Cotroni crime family" href="">Cotroni crime family</a>, <a title="Commisso ‘ndrina" href="">Commisso ‘ndrina</a>, <a title="Siderno Group" href="">Siderno Group</a>); <a title="Australia" href="">Australia</a&gt; (i.e. Siderno Group, <a title="The Carlton Crew" href="">The Carlton Crew</a>, <a title="Honoured Society (Australia)" href="">Honoured Society</a>, <a title="Barbaro ‘ndrina" href="">Barbaro ‘ndrina</a>); and <a title="Germany" href="">Germany</a&gt; (see <a class="mw-redirect" title="Duisburg massacre" href="">Duisburg massacre</a>). Italian organized crime groups also operate to varying extents throughout <a title="Western Europe" href="">Western Europe</a>, including the <a title="United Kingdom" href="">United Kingdom</a>. In the U.K. in particular, historically influential but now defunct Italian organized crime gangs operating in Great Britain included the <a class="mw-redirect" title="Sabini gang" href="">Sabini gang</a> and <a title="Cortesi brothers" href="">Cortesi brothers</a>.</p>
<p>Italian organized crime groups have also carved out turf or formed close ties with local organized crime group in <a class="mw-redirect" title="Latin American" href="">Latin American</a> countries such as <a title="Colombia" href="">Colombia</a&gt; and <a title="Venezuela" href="">Venezuela</a&gt; (where the <a title="Cuntrera-Caruana Mafia clan" href="">Cuntrera-Caruana Mafia clan</a> in particular has a significant presence.)</p>
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