Hamas is now in Southern Mexico and Latin America

Hamas is now in Southern Mexico and Latin America

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Hamas (Arabic: حماس‎‎ Ḥamās, an acronym of حركة المقاومة الاسلامية Ḥarakat al-Muqāwamah al-ʾIslāmiyyah Islamic Resistance Movement) is a Palestinian SunniIslamic fundamentalist organization.[6][7] It has a social service wing, Dawah, and a military wing, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, and, since 2007, has been the governing authority of the Gaza Strip.[8][9]

Hamas was founded in 1987,[10][11] soon after the First Intifada broke out, as an offshoot of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood,[12][13] which in its Gaza branch had been non-confrontational towards Israel, refrained from resistance, and was hostile to the PLO.[14] Co-founder Sheik Ahmed Yassin stated in 1987, and the Hamas Charter affirmed in 1988, that Hamas was founded to liberate Palestine, including modern-day Israel, from Israeli occupation and to establish an Islamic state in the area that is now Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.[15][16] The group has stated that it may accept a 10-year truce if Israel withdraws to the 1967 borders and allows Palestinian refugees from 1948, including their descendants, to return to what is now Israel,[17][18][19][20] although clarifying that this does not mean recognition of Israel or the end of the conflict.[21] Hamas’s military wing objected to the truce offer.[22] Analysts have said that it seems clear that Hamas knows that many of its conditions for the truce could never be met.[23]

The military wing of Hamas has launched attacks against Israeli civilians and soldiers, often justifying them as retaliatory, in particular for assassinations of the upper echelon of their leadership.[24] Tactics have included suicide bombings and, since 2001, rocket attacks.[25][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32] Hamas’s rocket arsenal, though mainly consisting of short-range homemade Qassam rockets,[33] also includes long-range weapons that have reached major Israeli cities including Tel Aviv and Haifa.[34][35] The attacks on civilians have been condemned as war crimes and crimes against humanity by human rights groups such as Human Rights Watch.[36][37]

In the January 2006 Palestinian parliamentary elections, Hamas won a plurality in the Palestinian Parliament,[38] defeating the PLO-affiliated Fatah party. Following the elections, the Quartet (the United States, Russia, United Nations, and European Union) made future foreign assistance to the PA conditional upon the future government’s commitment to non-violence, recognition of the state of Israel, and acceptance of previous agreements. Hamas rejected those changes, which led to the Quartet suspending its foreign assistance program and Israel imposing economic sanctions on the Hamas-led administration.[39][40] In March 2007, a national unity government headed by Prime Minister Ismail Haniyeh of Hamas was briefly formed, but this failed to restart international financial assistance.[41] Tensions over control of Palestinian security forces soon erupted in the 2007 Battle of Gaza,[41] after which Hamas took control of Gaza, while its officials were ousted from government positions in the West Bank.[41] Israel and Egypt then imposed an economic blockade of the Gaza Strip, on the grounds that Fatah forces were no longer providing security there.[42] In 2011, Hamas and Fatah announced a reconciliation agreement that provides for creation of a joint caretaker Palestinian government.[43] Progress stalled, until an April 2014 agreement to form a compromise unity government, with elections to be held in late 2014.[44]

Hamas, its military wing, together with several charities it runs, has been designated as a terrorist organization by Israel (1989), the United States (1996), Canada (2002), the European Union (2001/2003), Japan (2006) and Egypt (2015), and was outlawed in Jordan (1999).[45] It is not regarded as a terrorist organization by Iran, Russia, Norway, Switzerland, Turkey, China, and Brazil. An EU court found the EU’s earlier designation flawed, but its decision has been appealed by the European Council.[46] It is a point of debate in political and academic circles over whether or not to classify Hamas as a terrorist group.[47]

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