Arabs (Muslims) is now in Southern Mexico and Latin America

Arabs (Muslims) is now in Southern Mexico and Latin America

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Arabs (Arabic: عَرَب‎‎ [ˈʕarab] Listen) are an ethnic group inhabiting the Arab world. They primarily live in the Arab states in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and western Indian Ocean islands.[28]

The Arabs are first mentioned in the mid-ninth century BCE as a tribal people dwelling in the central Arabian Peninsula.[29] The Arabs appear to have been under the vassalage of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–612 BC), and the succeeding Neo-Babylonian (626–539 BC), Achaemenid (539–332 BC), Seleucid and Parthian empires.[30][31][32] Arab tribes, most notably the Ghassanids and Lakhmids, begin to appear in the southern Syrian Desert from the mid 3rd century CE onward, during the mid to later stages of the Roman and Sasanian empires.[33][34][35] Tradition holds that Arabs descend from Ishmael, the son of Abraham.[36][37][38] The Arabian Desert is the birthplace of “Arab”.[39] There are other Arab groups as well that spread in the land and existed for millennia.[40][41]

Before the expansion of the Caliphate, “Arab” referred to any of the largely nomadic Semitic people from the northern to the central Arabian Peninsula and Syrian Desert.[42][43][44] Presently, “Arab” refers to a large number of people whose native regions form the Arab world due to spread of Arabs throughout the region during the early Arab conquests of the 7th and 8th centuries.[45][46][47][48] The Arabs forged the Rashidun (632–661), Umayyad (661-750) and the Abbasid (750-1258) caliphates, whose borders reached southern France in the west, China in the east, Anatolia in the north, and the Sudan in the south. This was one of the largest land empires in history.[49][50][51][52][53] The Arab League endorsed the principle of an Arab homeland whilst respecting the individual sovereignty of its member states.[54][55]

Today, Arabs primarily inhabit the 22 Arab states within the Arab League: Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. The Arab world stretches around 13 million km², from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the Horn of Africa and the Indian Ocean in the southeast. Beyond the boundaries of the League of Arab States, Arabs can also be found in the global diaspora.[28] The ties that bind Arabs are ethnic, linguistic, cultural, historical, identical, nationalist, geographical and political.[56][57][58] The Arabs have their own customs, language, architecture, art, literature, music, dance, media, cuisine, dress, society, sports and mythology.[59][60][61] The total number of Arabs are an estimated 450 million.[1] This makes them the world’s second largest ethnic group after the Han Chinese.

Arabs are a diverse group in terms of religious affiliations and practices. In the pre-Islamic era, most Arabs followed polytheistic religions. Some tribes had adopted Christianity or Judaism, and a few individuals, the hanifs, apparently observed monotheism.[62][63] Today, Arabs are mainly adherents of Islam, with sizable Christian minorities.[64] Arab Muslims primarily belong to the Sunni, Shiite, Ibadi, Alawite, Druze and Ismaili denominations. Arab Christians generally follow one of the Eastern Christian Churches, such as the Maronite, Coptic Orthodox, Greek Orthodox, Greek Catholic, or Chaldean churches.[65][66]

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